Tea Parties and Terabytes : the Digital Library Revolution

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Tea Parties and  Terabytes  : the Digital Library Revolution

Tea Party

A few months ago on Publib , I entertained the idea of replacing a brick and mortar library with electronic book readers and subscriptions.

Our local free library had spent about $8,000,000 on a library renovation / reconstruction employing grants, local taxes, donations and state funds.  Notably, it had started out being about a 4 million dollar project.   What would 8 million dollars along with yearly operating funds  purchase now?  Could the needs of library users be met with electronic book readers and subscriptions?  Could accessibility be expanded?  

Asking those questions met with sharp disapproval from the librarian in Rhode Island who had overseen the project. She characterized me as a tea bagger – (derogatory slang meaning Tea Party member) for daring to bring up the idea.   At least I think that was what she meant.  The Urban Dictionary has some other definitions that are not very nice.

I'm late !

Why would entertaining a simple idea of how  8 million dollars could have been spent create such a visceral reaction? Public libraries represent the most efficient aspect of local government.  Hardly any library system is a  beneficiary of public largess.  The entire loosely affiliated public library system in the United States is efficient because of internalized ethics, highly trained personnel and sharing.  Sharing resources means everyone benefits.  Sharing is something other public services have never done as well as public libraries. Are public libraries in such precarious shape that civil discourse threatens libraries as the bastions of civil discourse?  Is time running out? Are we too late?

Imagine no brick and mortar library exists.  What sort of digital book access could an initial 8 million dollar investment and a yearly operating  budget of $480,000  afford?  …

$8,000,000  could buy:

 Amazon Kindle . . . . . . . . 57,553 units retail    at $139 each or
 Sony eBook Reader . . . .  62,015 units retail    at $129 each or
 Barnes & Noble Nook . . . 53,691 units retail    at $149 each 

 A $480,000 operating budget could purchase:

Lots of electronic books. The cost of many titles through Amazon’s Kindle program is $9.99 or less. So, yearly new ebook accession could be greater than or equal to 48,000 titles. That seems like a fairly small collection to support sixty thousand ebook readers

The 60,000 ebook readers could also be shared within households. With  2.59 people on average per household - 155,400 people would be sharing only 48,000 titles.  That is less than 1/3 of a book simultaneously available to all readers at once during the first year.

But wait, there’s more, terabytes more:

Amazon also provides Kindle Popular Classics with almost instantaneous free access to over 15,000 books.

Project Gutenberg provides Free eBooks with over 33,000  titles.

The Internet Archive provides free access to massive collections .

The Google Books project also provides free access to terabytes of text and images and is partnering with major libraries around the world.

Digital collections such as the Perseus Project   and Lincolniana at Brown offer a vast wealth of specialized subject matter.

The United States Government along with State and Local Governments are providing more and more public information in digital format.

So, what does that mean?

60,000 households could each have immediately access to hundreds of thousands of free books and articles and increasing access to new books and articles. 

But what about catalogs and reader services?  Doesn’t everyone need catalog help? These collections are HUGE!

The Library of Congress is the largest library in the United States.  The Library of Congress Catalog is massive and serves as the expert resource for copyright.  The Librarians who staff the Library of Congress are some of the most highly compensated in the US. 

Which catalog is intuitively better?

Library of Congress Catalog search:

Here is the output in basic search for the word balliot:   http://bit.ly/fCXAnh

Select item 2 -  CONVAL Report:  http://bit.ly/ijNORk

Using the same search strategy in Google Books:

Here is the output in basic search for the word balliot:    http://bit.ly/faHnAT

Select item 1 – CONVAL Report:  http://bit.ly/gUPu1v

It is even intuitively easier to search within  Library of Congress collections using Google Books full text.  LC requires a copy submitted to them when they formally copyright.  

Full- text of the Copyright Catalog available within Google and not within the LC catalog:  http://bit.ly/gzJf7S  provides reference pointers to LC’s collection.

The HELIN  Library Catalog employs  III encore software and includes: Brown University, Bryant University, Community College of Rhode Island, Dominican House of Studies, Hospital Libraries of Rhode Island, Johnson & Wales University, Providence College, Rhode Island College, Roger Williams University, Salve Regina University, University of Rhode Island, and Wheaton College holdings.

Which catalog is more helpful? 

Here is  HELIN‘s output searching for the phrase Windows Forensic Analysis DVD Toolkit, Second Edition:   http://bit.ly/g8mOa0

Here is Amazon‘s output searching for the phrase Windows Forensic Analysis DVD Toolkit, Second Edition: http://amzn.to/gBpxkZ

Encore tells us that we should use other words and check our spelling. It offers no leads to additional material.  Amazon provided the book, the electronic version, reviews, shots of inside pages and related works.  Some library catalogs intergrate similar features in the user interface, but they are not leading the way.  They are merely following the examples of successful for-profit library catalogs that only recently began to market books.

The Digital Library Revolution

 $8,ooo,ooo in construction expenditures and a $480,000 yearly budget represents the real-world costs of operating a public library in a community with about 22,000 residents and a fairly small collection.  Using the revolutionary digital library model presented here, the same funds would support 155,400  people in 60,000 households while providing instant access to terabytes of digitized collections.
 
The digital library revolution is a radical departure from the way that library materials are contained, published and distributed. Instead of allowing public libraries to disappear from the conversation,  civil discourse should continue that includes public libraries as significant partners and facilitators in the evolution of this digital library revolution.  It is not too late.
 

 “But I don’t want to go among mad people,” Alice remarked.
“Oh, you can’t help that,” said the Cat: “we’re all mad here. I’m mad. You’re mad.”
“How do you know I’m mad?” said Alice.
“You must be,” said the Cat, “or you wouldn’t have come here.” ~ Lewis Carroll

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Publib Topics – A Graphic Retrospective from January 2011 back to January 2010

Beware Graphic Content Ahead!

These graphic images or word clouds were created using Wordle. They are derived from the subjects and authors in PubLib from January 2010 to January 27 2011.  The size of the graphics is directly related to the number of un-weighted unique occurrences each month of the individual words represented.    Most automated graphic processes that generate these types of word clouds use additional weight for H1 - H6 tags through feeds.  These graphics are not processed with H1 - H6 tags. The titles and authors were copied to Notepad and stripped of all HTML before being run through the Wordle Java platform. The process is case-sensitive so Library is not the same thing as library.
The most prominent word without employing filters would have been PublibPublib and Fwd were deleted from the plaintext files before processing.  In addition, the Wordle program automatically disregards articles, conjunctions, and prepositions.
 
The first graphic represents the most current information for January 2011 and is followed by the normal sequence of January – December 2010.  
2011 appears somewhat ominous! 
January 2011 PubLib

PubLib January 2010

PubLib February 2010

PubLib March 2010

PubLib April 2010

PubLib April 2010

PubLib May 2010

PubLib May 2010

PubLib June 2010

 

PubLib July 2010

 

PubLib August 2010

PubLib September 2010

PubLib October 2010

PubLib November 2010

PubLib December 2010

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Kindles and Android and Nooks (oh my!)

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Update May 19, 2011:   Amazon announced that they are now selling more Kindle books than print books – 5%  more – after dropping the price on the Kindle with advertising to $114.   

Update April 20, 2011:   Amazon announced they will be introducing a Kindle Program for Libraries later this year.     This is significant news for the Library market and quite a game-changer. How will this affect the Overdrive market and the future purchase of hand-held e-book readers by libraries?

According to MediaPost.com  Kindles represent 59% of e-readers shipped.  So, if Overdrive is able to deliver as represented, this would mean 59% more potential e-reader patrons for Libraries that have e-book collections.  Is making the most popular e-reader compatible with 11,000 library collections a positive thing for Libraries?  Is making the devices interactive with the books positive for patrons?  I think it is.
 
It is also potentially *great* for Kindle sales, Kindle book sales, Kindle book authors/publishers (70% royalities in US/UK)  and Overdrive.  The marketplace responded very positively to Amazon’s April 20th news release: http://www.google.com/finance?client=ob&q=NASDAQ:AMZN

Since Overdrive, Inc. is not publicly traded, it is hard to tell what immediate impact this has on the value of their company. But, given Amazon’s extraordinary success in customer satisfaction and their huge IT infrastructure, it stands to reason that the partnership would serve to enhance Library customer satisfaction with Overdrive too.

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Scary new road for Librarians

Many of the  Publib and Web4Lib conversations in 2010 centered on the effects of handheld media devices and applications in the world of libraries.  The mainstream use of handheld media and the proliferation of machines that effectively recreate the reading experience of traditional books struck home for many librarians.

The codex certainly has many iterations, but after 500 years it did become standardized.  With the exception of oversized and miniature books, most are close in size and operate essentially the same way. Librarians are comfortable with and comforted by collections of nice squared chunks of paper, cloth and leather neatly arranged on metal and wooden shelves.   We were comfortable with card catalogs and eventually became comfortable with online catalogs.  The online catalogs certainly did not have the same feel, the same look, the same smell as the old catalogs, but eventually they took hold as  standard library features. Yet, unlike most traditional library catalogs, the intellectual authority over catalog software was outsourced to vendors.  Librarians essentially gave up ownership of their catalogs, while providing broader access to more collections for their patrons through shared resources, databases and inter-library loan.

Slowly, a new path of accessibility began to blend in with the online catalogs. Digital books and digital audio became popular. Massive digitization and storage of public domain works projects were undertaken.  Computer memory, speed, and storage increased while size, cost and energy needs decreased.   Smart-phones and wireless networking became common. 3G and 4G networks proliferated. The convergence of networks, digitization, and hardware improvements meant book contents requiring hundreds of metal and wooden shelves are now available on devices weighing under a pound. And, those same devices have access to enormous digitized collections at far greater speed than even the most efficient traditional library services. 

The youthful progression of 18-20 somethings forced  Academic Librarians to become early adopters of hand-held media technology. Academic in-house computing power and talent lent themselves to solving problems of accommodating information delivery in the manner prefered by their gen x and gen y patrons .  Public Librarians trended towards becoming late adopters.  Many had no budget for electronic book collection development.  Others, inhibited by vendor controlled delivery and electronic book access looked for ways around what appeared to be a system without standards.  Some of the better funded public libraries have been able to develop electronic book collections, purchase electronic readers, and effectively respond to the demand by their patrons for this new information medium. 

 

Rise of the Machines

2010 Christmas season sales in the US accompanied a big price break and increase in quality for hand-held electronic book readers.  Nook, from Barnes & Noble, dropped its price to $149 and started offering a color screen.  Kindle  , from Amazon dropped in price to $139 and the Kindle became their top-selling item.  The Sony ebook Reader was more affordable at $129. The marketplace moved from early adopters willing to pay several hundreds of dollars to the mass market with prices under $200 for advanced electronic book readers.  Many librarians saw the trend and adapted to increased demand for e-books by their patrons.   Many other librarians worked on denying the viability of e-books and holding on to the comfortable idea that the codex was simply better.  But with massive profits driving the suppliers, each complaint about the viability of e-books is being addressed with solutions.  And, the suppliers of e-readers attempt to make their devices behave as well or better than the traditional book:

Librarians and readers complained that reading from a computer screen was not as enjoyable as reading a book. Nook now advertises its “just-like-paper screen” and Kindle and Sony employ the same electronic technology from E-Ink .  The electronic paper screens do not have the flicker of CRTs and glare of LCD panels.  They are not back-lit such as LCD / LED screens - so text does not disappear in direct sunlight.  Some reports link use of LCD and LED screens to insomnia , but the same effect is not apparent with the E-Ink electronic paper available from new electronic book readers.

Librarians and readers complained that sharing of downloaded materials was not possible because the license was for one device, one reader Nook and Kindle have begun to address sharing and are now offering options. Market demand and profit will determine future sharing options. With such an insignificant production / advertising / distribution cost compared to traditional books – electronic books potentially have more leeway in terms of maintaining profitability for publishers and authors.

Nook offers social media options and two million titles. Kindle offers text to speech, advanced pdf reader, and Whispersync links your personal library and the progress of your reading with other devices you might own.  Sony offers Readerstore, Googlebooks, and excellent cross-platform compatibility. Each device is moving towards becoming more and more multifunctional.

Librarians complained about the lack of standardization, instructions and cross-platform compatibility. Most of those problems were derived from vendors who had failed to create adequate instructions and quickly address the needs of libraries as fluid and dynamic information marketplaces.  Conversely, with each complaint about electronic book readers, the focus of the manufacturers and suppliers is to improve.  The complaints are heard as an  opportunity to improve and move a step ahead of their competition.  Are libraries competing?

As if Kindle and Nook and Sony did not create a big enough impact, Google’s Android operating system along with Apple’s iPad  / iPhone and PC applications paved the way for multi-use handheld devices.  3G access became widespread and smartphones are able to use Nook,  Sony and Kindle applications to increase personal library access.   Android equipped devices can quickly download a Kindle or Nook application. Every smartphone can now become an electronic book reader and a mobile library.

The electronic book is here and expanding and evolving without librarians a gatekeepers.  However, there is encouraging news from many public libraries showing patron excitement over electronic book collections.  Some are offering to purchase copies for libraries.  Multiple holds for electronic books demonstrate that sharing is still one of the most effective tool of libraries.   But, if libraries are going to rely solely of vendors for delivery,  vendors must improve and address libraries as valued and dynamic information markets. One of the most promising tools available to librarians who wish to take the intellectual leap of not being entirely vendor dependent is Calibre ebook management.    This “free and open source e-book library management application” offers many features of value to librarians and their patrons.

Librarians must address competition in the information market in order to remain viable. With massive budget cuts to all public services looming, the road ahead for libraries is unknown.  However, it looks like the Tin Man will be traveling with us.

Rise of the Machines

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Publib Discussion: Unnecessary censorship or necessary evil?

 What would Mark Twain do?

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Publib contributors weighed in on questions regarding the sanitation of language in a new edition of Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn for the purpose of classroom instruction. Would Mark Twain approve? Should period works be sanitized for classroom instruction?  The general consensus appears to have been a resounding NO.

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

♦  Appalled – Judy Jerome

♦  Awful, just awful. – Sally Tornow

♦  doubt that Mr. Clemens would have approved – Sharon Foster

♦  disgraceful – Mary Soucie

♦  Political correctness run so far amuck that it is changing history and literature – Fred Beisser

♦  outraged – Lisa Guidarini

♦  What good does that do? – Kathi Kemp

♦  outrageous and self-aggrandizing endeavor – Robin Orlandi

♦  bowdlerizing is misguided – should be considered/cataloged as a derivative work – John Beekman

♦  order some new copies of the Twain books with the original language so that we ensure that we have them around as needed in years to come… – Sharon Highler

♦  Hi Tech Bowdlerization, still pathetic. – Jeff Imparato

♦  UNBELIEVABLE – GiGi Bayne

♦  horrendous – Tom Cooper

♦  Is there similar outrage about versions of pop music that have selected words altered? – Brad Thomas

♦  The idea that the “new version” is specifically intended for the educational market i(s) disheartening.  – Paula Laurita

♦  Mr. Twain is no longer around to grant his permission. – Aleta Copeland

♦  If you think this edition is a bad idea, then fight for the original. – Jacob Browne

♦  Twain’s language reflects his times, not ours – Kathleen Stipek

There are certainly many different perspectives on race.  But, there really is only one race. We *all* began in Africa.  Folklore / religion / and ignorance of history create the illusion that we are different other than in extremely superficial characteristics.  Those superficial characteristics are simply tiny changes in the genetic markers that have occurred over many thousands of years.

National Geographic produced an excellent film – The Human Family Tree – that traces us back to scientific Adam and scientific Eve.  Worth collecting for any public or academic library:

http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/human-family-tree-3706-interactive

The Genographic Project will let you trace your own history, our own history – way, way, way beyond Ancestry.com .

The Elbert County Library in Colorado sponsored a presentation on Genealogy DNA Testing: 

http://denver.yourhub.com/Franktown/Stories/News/General-News/Story%7E921172.aspx  

Think about what a program like that could do for your community.

What would Mark Twain do?

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Welcome to Washington, DC! – Food, Glorious Food at ALA

Overview: Chinatown & Penn Quarter

Hi and welcome to our nation’s capital, whether it’s your first time or returning visit!

Looking for a place to grab a quick bite or enjoy dinner with fellow American Library Association librarians and friends near the Washington Convention Center?  Here’s a short list of places I’ve enjoyed.

Chinese food–Chinatown

China Express–features freshly made noodles and other delicious dishes.  Takeout items available.  (746 6th St., NW)

Wok N Roll Restaurant—Chinese-Japanese cuisine.  You can also see the bronze plaque on the front entrance noting this historic building was Mary Sturratt’s boarding house.  (604 H St. NW)

Restaurants

Clyde’s–Just by the Verizon Center, this place has delicious American fare.  While you’re waiting for your table, you can wander into the adjacent Verizon Center lobby (707 7th St. NW)

Bistro d’Oc–serving southern French food (518 10th St. NW)

Capitol City Brewery–Restaurant and bar. Featuring various beers (1100 New York Ave. NW)

The Greene Turtle–local sports bar restaurant chain.  Booths feature a mini TV so you can watch whatever game is on. (601 F St. NW)

Vapiano–Chinatown–Freshly cooked pasta and pizza while you wait. Full bar available. (623 H Street NW)

Caucus Room–If you have the money or someone else is paying on a business account, this is one good place!  Appropriate dinner attire required.  (401 9th St. NW)

 

Quick Bites

California Tortilla–great burritos! (728 7th St., NW)

Potbelly–well known subs and sandwiches chain. (726 7th St. NW)

Capital Q BBQ–Love barbeque?  This Texas style place should be worth the visit.  (707 H St. NW)

Ollie’s Trolley–popular DC hamburger institution as Ben’s Chili Bowl.  You can’t miss the distinctive yellow and red exterior. (12th & E St. NW)

Five Guys–popular hamburger, hot dog, and fries chain that started here in the metro DC area.  (808 H St. NW)

Food Court, lower level of Techworld office Building–if you don’t have much time in between sessions, you can have a quick and delicious lunch here.  The various eateries are open during business hours of the Techworld Building. (800 K St. NW)

Desserts & Treats

Red Velvet—delicious cupcakes! (675 E St NW)

Tangy Sweet—If you’d rather have frozen yogurt, step into Red Velvet’s next door neighbor.  (675 E Street NW)

Frozenyo—self serve frozen yogurt (1006 F St. NW)  If you’ll be around historic Ford’s Theatre, this is a good place to stop.

Haagen Daaz–your favorite ice cream flavors and other delicious speciality treats.   (703 7th St, NW)

Gifford’s–local ice creamery (555 11th St. NW)

For more on these restaurants and more suggestions, visit the online Going Out Guide on WashingtonPost.com.

Hotel Bars

Cure Bar and Bistro–restaurant and bar.  If you’re with a group, you can have a wine tasting from one of the staff and for an additional price, a light appetizer buffet in the bar area. Dinner fare is available. Main lobby, Grand Hyatt Hotel  (1000 H St. NW)

Presidents Sports Bar–Features photos of the Presidents at play, hence the name.  The restaurant is off the lobby. Main lobby, Renaissance Hotel (999 Ninth St. NW)

Miscellaneous

Union Station–the capitol hub for our local rail service and Amtrak.  Check out the speciality stores and enjoy a quick bite or meal.

Penn Quarter seasonal Farmer’s Market–Thursday afternoons, featuring local farm produce, pastries and breads, organic meats, and other locally made products (8th and E St, NW)

Additional note: if you need anything, the nearest CVS is at 8th and E St. NW.  The Chinatown CVS location (7th and H St) was supposed to reopen this year after renovation but still remains closed.

 

Best of PubLib 03.28.10

Best of Publib Current Topics and Archives

Provocative video suitable for all audiences coming soon

This edition of  Best of Publib covers  March 15th through March 28th 2010. This PubLib review and analysis includes questions about naming library rooms, thought-provoking discussions about new media archives , library materials security,  and our new poll on R-rated movie access. Some of the topics we will be reviewing include: 

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Best of PubLib 03.14.10

Best of Publib Current Topics and Archives

Video coming soon

This edition of  Best of Publib covers the weeks of March 1st  through March 14th 2010. This edition includes questions about collection development, thought-provoking discussions about  known inaccuracies in ‘non-fiction’ works , circulation manager duties ,  humorous anecdotes regarding blondes ,  and the impact of closing public school libraries: 

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Best of PubLib 02.14.10

Best of Publib Current Topics and Archives

Best of PubLib TV – Coming Soon!

This week  in  Best of Publib covers the week of February 8th through February 14th 2010. This week includes questions about public access computer security, thought-provoking discussions about sharing library buildings with community centers and government, distribution of e-book readers,  and our new poll on rewarding staff innovation and initiative. Some of the topics we will be reviewing include: 

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Best of PubLib 02.08.10

Best of Publib Current Topics and Archives

weekly updateThis week  in  Best of Publib covers the week of February 1st through February 7th 2010. This week includes questions about collection development, thought-provoking discussions about social reference questions , library website development,  and changes to library employment qualifications. Some of the topics we will be reviewing include:

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Best of PubLib 01.31.10

Best of Publib Current Topics and Archives

Video returning soon

weekly updateThis week  in  Best of Publib covers January 24th through January 31st 2010. This week includes discussions about the Broadband Stimulus Programs,  collection development, technology planning, library programming, access to archives,  and the effect of library reference poaching. Some of the topics we will be reviewing include:

  • Topic   »    Library Fines – Lynda Dydo in Los Gatos, CA wants to know who raised fines – What was the impact on revenue?
  • Topic   »    Author Meet & Greets -  Rhonda Jessup  in Whitby, ON Canada  wants to know how you introduce authors – What is most effective?
  • Topic   »    Employment applications – Kathleen McCorkle in Sedan, KS would like examples of library specific employment applications
  • Topic   »    Documented LJ Index Problems – Thomas J. Hennen Jr. in Racine, WI provides analysis of issues with LJ Index – Will the problems be answered or resolved?
  • Topic   »    program attendance question – Elizabeth Fraser in Charleston WV is looking for program statistics – Which programs are successful?
  • Topic   »    GED revisions? – Kevin O’Kelly in Somerville, MA wanted to know about GED updates – the NETLS Coordinator provided the answers
  • Topic   »    Astoria Library Birthday Party Invitation – Jane Tucker in Astoria, OR lets us know about the 118th Birthday of Astoria Public Library
  • Topic   »    Question for Frequent Travelers – Jennifer Ray in Cassopolis, MI wants to know how to predict the best deals on flights – Sharon Foster offered Bing
  • Topic   »    Church Partnerships? – Tony Ross in Washington, DC wants to know how to build relationships with local churches – Are there constitutional considerations?
  • Topic   »    CD shelving – Lynne S. Ingersoll  in Blue Island, IL is looking at functional storage and display for 3000 CDs - What works?
  • Topic   »    RFID Implementation - Andrea Taylor in Fullerton, CA wants your story on setting up RFID – What were the processes and pitfalls?
  • Topic   »    Challenges to newspaper index entries – Bruce Brigell in Skokie, Illinois relates the effect of newspaper archives that  disparage – What is the balance between public access and public disparagement? 
  • Topic   »    CD and DVD protectors – Margaret (Meg) Van Patten in Baldwinsville, New York wants to know what works best – How do you protect the data side surface of your DVDs?
  • Topic   »    which Speaker System to use – Amy Blossom in Ashland, Oregon wants a low-cost speaker system with portable mikes  for library programs – Which products work for you?
  • Topic   »    iPad and what it means to the library – Andrea Taylor in Fullerton, CA discusses the potential impact of the Apple iPad  on similar products and libraries – What do you think?
  • Topic   »    Tax season – Elisa Babel in Washington, DC provides a great link to Closed Stacks discussing  tax season effect on libraries and the types of tax filers librarians are most likely to encounter – How did libraries become in loco IRS ?
  • Topic   »    Social Networking and the Library – Jane Genzel in Muskego, WI wants to know how your library benefits from blogs, Twitter, Facebook and other social networking tools – How do you measure success?
  • Topic   »    New Blog: Quid est veritas? – Bob Watson in Lake Villa, IL has started a new blog offering his expertise on reference issues Quid est veritas?
  • Topic   »    Appointments for in-depth Reference Assistance - Theresa Grieshaber in Modesto CA is reviewing methods for exclusive reference services
  • Topic   »   PR/Marketing Masterpieces – Dinah Harris in Lexington, TN is presenting on library public relations and marketing at Tennessee Library Association Conference 2010  – What are some of your success stories?
  • Topic   »    Reference Question Poaching – What happens when a collegue interupts the reference interview with their own answers? How do you handle it?
  • Topic   »    Library Humor for the month of January was compiled in  Best of PubLib Library Humor
  • Topic   »    Get Connected now available - Diedre Conkling in Newport, OR  links to Broadband Stimulus Program information  
  • Topic   »    NTIA sending out 1,400 rejection letters! – James Casey in Oak Lawn, IL points to some of the faults in the bureacratic process - Are Broadband Stimulus Applications too complicated? Is resistance useless?

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